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PDF permits the use of encryption as a means of restricting access or (re-)use of content. This may range from documents that can only be opened after providing a password, to disabling specific functionality (e.g. printing, copying content).


  • Content may become inaccessible if passwords are not known (even though "cracking" is often technically possible, institutions may not be legally permitted to do this)
  • Printing / copy restrictions may complicated any future preservation actions


How to assess whether a particular file is affected by this. Includes tool link(s) + concise description of how we can get the required information from this tool. Use XPath expressions if tool produces output in XML format, e.g. see below:

Tool Affected if expression returns True
Jpylyzer "/jpylyzer/isValidJP2 = 'False'"


Recommendations on what action(s) to pursue in case file is affected by this problem. Optional.

Example files

Links to example files, preferrably from OPF Format Corpus, e.g. like this:


References to literature, etc.

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